Optimization of CVD parameters for long ZnO NWs grown on ITO/glass substrate

The optimization of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) parameters for long and vertically aligned (VA) ZnO nanowires (NWs) were investigated. Typical ZnO NWs as a single crystal grown on indium tin oxide (ITO)- coated glass substrate were successfully synthesized. First, the conducted side of ITO–glass substrate was coated with zinc acetate dihydrate to form seed layer of ZnO nanocrystals. Double zone tube furnace connected to vacuum pump was used for ZnO growth process. Zn metal powder was positioned at the first zone at temperature 900◦C. The ITO–glass substrate with pre-coated seed layer was then located in the second zone of tube furnace at growth temperature of 550◦C. The growth of ZnO NWs was controlled under constant concentration of seed layer, while other parameters such as argon and oxygen flow rates, substrate position, time and oxygen flow rate were varied. The VA ZnO NWs were finally characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometer and highresolution transmission electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The results show that long and VA ZnO NWs were single crystalline with hexagonal wurtzite structure. The ultimate length and average diameter of ZnO NWs were 10 μm and 50–100 nm, respectively. These were achieved under optimized CVD growth parameters. The mechanism of vertical growth model of ZnO NWs is also discussed.
VA ZnO NWs; chemical vapour deposition; long ZnO nanowires; ZnO single crystal; growth mechanism.
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